For specific answers to questions about bilberry, you may call the Bilberry 20/20 Information Line at 1 800 818-9131. This service is sponsored by a company that makes bilberry extract capsules.

The following two articles are a reformatted and slightly edited version (the only textual changes are the addition of section headings, and the removal of an inappropriate apostrophe) of articles found on Robert Bidleman's Herbal Hall.

Vaccinium u.

Bilberry, Huckleberry, Whortleberry, etc.
by Robert Bidleman

Geography and History

Vaccinium species are found in cooler areas of North America and Eurasia, usually in moist, acid soils in wooded areas, heaths and barren places. They are especially common under canopies of old growth trees. Vaccinium leaves were used by the Kashaya Pomo in Northern California for diabetes and eye disorders, and bilberry is mentioned in many older texts in Buryatia, Europe, and China as an herb valuable for its powerful ability to correct many diseases of the digestive system, circulatory system, and eyes. For centuries bilberry has been used as a circulatory enhancer and diabetic aid (Hutchens; Moore). People of the North East USA have used blueberry leaves for diabetes for many years, and this action has been supported in at least one clinical trial (Allen).

Chemical Composition and Main Effects

Most scientific research has been done on V. myrtillus (bilberry). The following has been found in bilberry: ericolin, arbutin, beta-amyrin, nonacosane, and anthocyanosides. Anthocyanosides are a type of flavonoid which causes the deep blue-red color of many berries. Anthocyanosides may protect the vascular system by strengthening the capillary walls. This may produce many of the secondary benefits such as lowering of blood pressure, reduction of clots, reducing varicosities and bruising, reversing poor blood supply, and improving blood supply. Bilberry is used in Europe before surgery to prevent excessive bleeding and hemorrhaging. A recent German medical journal reports bilberry effective in reducing excessive bleeding by 71% (Lietti). Bilberry also thins the blood by inhibiting platelet adhesion (Bottecchia). This combination of actions

  1. improving capillary strength,
  2. reduction of capillary leakage, and
  3. blood thinning
results in improved blood flow and may reduce clotting-related health risks.

Improvement of Vision

During World War II Royal Air Force (RAF) pilots were forced to fly at night in order to accomplish any deep assault on Germany. Many pilots and their crew members complained of the poor visibility and its effects on their performance. Pilots noted that if they took bilberry jam, their night vision improved. Researchers found fifty years later what the RAF already knew, that bilberry's powerful effects increased retinal purple (rhodopsin) by dramatic amounts in just twenty minutes, sometimes less. One study showed bilberry to improve eyesight and increase occular blood supply in 75% of patients (Sala). It improved nearsightedness after five months of regular use while an 83% improvement in visual acuity was recorded after only fifteen days. One of the more encouraging statistics regarding bilberry's visual enhancing properties is that over 80% of the people taking bilberry for the first time improved on their visual acuity exam and passed a night vision test. Long term improvements took an average of six weeks with regular doses (Sala).

Prevention of Free Radical Damage

The anthocyanosides of bilberry, which may vary in amounts from one variety to another, have been proven to be one of the more powerful antioxidants. Ranked higher in activity than vitamins E and C by Dr. Pierre Braquet, a well known phyto-researcher, anthocyanosides prevent free radical damage to collagen and collagenous tissue, making it potentially useful for diseases such as osteoarthritis, gout, and periodontal diseases. Vaccinium myrtillus' anthocyanosides proved consistently to increase the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of isolated coronary arteries in humans (Boniface). This is a promising update to the already impressive list of benefits of bilberry.

Improvement of Digestion

Another quality of bilberry is the effect it has on the digestive system, most notably on the stomach. A recent study showed bilberry to inhibit ulcers in 63% of patients at risk (control group, 12%) (Magistretti).

Vaccinium species have a legendary reputation as aid to an diabetics. A dual action makes it valuable in diabetes -- it improves circulation and also modifies blood sugar levels (Boniface; Magistretti). The fresh or dried berries are useful for a feverish liver and are useful as an adjunct in stomach conditions. In Russia the berries are affectionately called by the name chernika (black ones) and are used with the leaves in tinctures for gastric colitis and other digestive problems.


Bilberry forms
by Paul Bergner


Bilberries were a common food among Native Americans in all part of the continent where they grow (Erichsen-Brown). Some tribes still harvest and dry them and use them as a winter food. The berries are high in tannins (7%) (Weiss), and the resulting astringent effects makes them effective for diarrhea and dysentery. For this purpose they are taken as dried berries or as unsweetened bilberry juice.


The leaf (tincture or tea) has been used as an antidiabetic herb for centuries. According to Weiss (Herbal Medicine) it works through the action of its constituent glucokinins, which have an insulin-like effect. He cautions that glucokinins are not some superior "plant insulin" but act indirectly through a toxic effect on the liver. He discourages long-term use.

The leaves of some species contain arbutin, and can be used like Acrtolostaphylos uva ursi (bearberry) as a diuretic and urinary antiseptic. The leaves of V. myrtillus (bilberry) do not contain arbutin (Sticher)

Concentrated extracts

Most modern reseach and medicinal use has been on a highly concentrated extract, with 25% anthocyanosides, with tannins removed and using V Myrtillus, which does not contain arbutin (see above). The berries normally have less than 1% anthocyanosides (Kyermaten). The dose is from 180 to 800 mg a day of the extract, in three doses. The vascular effects in the accompanying article have been noted and documented with this form. Effects have been noted in improving capillary fragility, varicosities, retinal eye disorders, cataract, menstrual disorders, peptic ulcers, and atherosclerosis (Werbach and Murray).